Nimruz Province. (Afghanistan) In the middle of the dunes, 86 kilometers southeast of Zaranj and 22 kilometers east of Qal'a-i Fath.
Dates: Parthian, 2nd-1st century BC (numismatic evidence); Indo-Parthian & Sassanian, 1st-7th century AD (numismatic evidence); Saffarid, 9th century (architectural); Ghaznavid, 11th-12th century (architectural); Ghurid, 12th-13th century (numismatic); Timurid, 15th-16th century (architectural).
A vast area of remains and ancient cultivation stretching for several km across the dunes. The main part are the remains of Shahr-i Ghulghula itself, a large fortified urban site covering approximately one square kilometer. It consists of a first, square enclosure and ditch, with remains of many houses and graves inside. There is then a second, circular enclosure and ditch with a third, innermost pentagonal enclosure and ditch marking a probable palatial complex. This stands on a mound 25 meters high, and includes the remains of a mosque and over 100 rooms, many of them domed and containing stucco decoration. Most of the fortifications are mud, though there is extensive baked-brick construction as well. Finds from the area include many Parthian, Sasanian and Early Islamic coins, and a hoard of 406 copper coins dated 1167-1221 from the mosque.
Source: Warwick Ball, Archaeological Gazetteer of Afghanistan, 1982, n. 1006
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Namen: Burial mounds with entryway: A first circle surrounds the mound under which the burial chamber is located; a second encircles the entire building. Only the men are buried there, lying on their side, their heads facing east, and they all have the same direc
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